Jammu Kashmir Journal of Agriculture 2024-05-17T08:50:03+00:00 Dr. Raees Ahmed Open Journal Systems <p><a href=""><strong>Jammu Kashmir Journal of Agriculture</strong></a></p> <p><strong><em><u>AIMS AND SCOPE </u></em></strong></p> <p><em> </em><em>Jammu Kashmir Journal of Agriculture</em> is a scientific, scholarly and international open-access journal publishing high-quality peer-reviewed research articles, review papers and short communications reflecting the depth of interdisciplinarity of agriculture. The aim of <em>Jammu Kashmir Journal of Agriculture</em> is to publish recent and advanced research on the production technology of crops, rearing of dairy animals, postharvest handling and management practices of produce, conservation and restoration of natural resource base (land, soil and water), rural development and recent advancements on agricultural practices under changing climate. Accordingly, the scope of <em>Jammu Kashmir Journal of Agriculture</em> for the consideration of contributions is detail out below.</p> <p><strong>Crop production</strong><strong> (cereals, legumes, fruits, vegetables and flowers)</strong></p> <ul> <li>Crop protection (diseases and insect management, weeds and invasive species management)</li> <li>Crop breeding and molecular genetics</li> <li>Crop nutrition management</li> <li>Irrigation and efficient water utilization</li> <li>Crop physiology</li> <li>Sustainable agriculture</li> <li>Organic agriculture</li> <li>Precision agriculture</li> <li>Conservation agriculture</li> </ul> <p><strong>Animal production: livestock and poultry</strong></p> <ul> <li>Animal nutrition</li> <li>Animal breeding</li> <li>Veterinary Parasitology</li> <li>Veterinary Microbiology</li> <li>Veterinary Pathology</li> <li>Veterinary Medicine and Surgery</li> </ul> <p><strong>Natural resource base</strong></p> <ul> <li>Soil microbiology</li> <li>Soil chemistry</li> <li>Soil and water quality</li> <li>Irrigation and water use efficiency</li> <li>Land uses</li> </ul> <p><strong>Rural management and agricultural development</strong></p> <ul> <li>Trade and marketing</li> <li>Rural communities development</li> </ul> <p><strong>Agricultural Engineering</strong></p> <ul> <li>Farm machinery uses and advancements</li> <li>Geographical Information Systems</li> <li>Remote sensing devices and protocols</li> </ul> <p><strong>Agricultural product safety</strong></p> <ul> <li>Post-harvest handling and management</li> <li>Nutritional safety of produce</li> <li>Novel food products developments</li> </ul> Effects of Dietary Prebiotics, Probiotics and Symbiotics on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Body Condition Score and Nutrients Digestibility of Rabbits 2024-03-04T10:58:51+00:00 Samina Memon Allah Bux Kachiwal Mool Chand Malhi Gulfam Ali Mughal <p>Present study was carried out on thirty-two rabbits that were housed in individual wooden cages during the 12-week experimental period. Results indicates that significantly (P&lt;0.05) maximum live body weight (2484.88±165.5g) was noted in group D as compared to group B (2306.25±241.78g), group C 2249.63±199.79g) and minimum live body weight (2083.88±248.66g) was recorded from group A. Significantly (P&lt;0.05) maximum daily feed intake (97.19±0.65 g) was noted in group D as compared to group B (94.55±0.60g), group C (89.09±0.83g) and minimum daily feed intake (85.79±0.63g) was recorded from group A. Significantly (P&lt;0.05) better FCR (2.75±1.19) was noted in group D as compared to group B (3.13±1.13), and group C (3.60±1.22). Poor FCR (3.87±1.01) was recorded from group A. BCS of group B, C D was recorded as ideal (3±0). BCS was recorded as thin (2±0) in group A. Significantly (P&lt;0.05) maximum carcass weight (1915.68±243.55g) was noted in group D as compared to group B (1604.43±204.67g), group C (1355.28±184.69g) and minimum carcass weight (1000.10±125.34g) was recorded from group A. Significantly (P&lt;0.05) maximum dry matter digestibility (61.50±0.93%) was noted in group D as compared to group B (60.88±1.73%), group C (55.88±1.46%) and minimum dry matter digestibility (54.38±1.69%) was recorded from group A. Maximum crude fiber digestibility (53.50±1.93%) was noted in group A as compared to group C and group B (35.63±2.33% and 28.75±2.60%) and minimum crude fiber digestibility (15.50±1.51%) was recorded from group D. Maximum ash digestibility (50.75±1.49%) was noted in group A as compared to group C and group B (48.50±1.60% and 35.63±1.60%), respectively. Minimum ash digestibility (28.13±1.55%) was recorded from group D. Maximum nitrogen free extract digestibility (73.13±1.89%) was noted in group A as compared to group C and group B (66.75±2.12% and 56.88±1.36%), respectively. Minimum nitrogen free extract digestibility (42.25±2.43%) was recorded from group D. Statistical analysis of data revealed significant (P&lt;0.05) difference in crude fiber, ash and nitrogen free extract digestibility.</p> 2024-04-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Samina Memon, Allah Bux Kachiwal, Mool Chand Malhi, Gulfam Ali Mughal Impact of Different Rates of Phosphatic Fertilizer on the Growth and Yield of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) 2024-03-04T11:31:34+00:00 Danish Manzoor Muhammad Ali Ansari Asif Ali Kaleri Rabia Laghari Aatif Ali Rajput Muhammad Ahsan Naseem Sajjad Ali Khaki Ayesha Shakoor Muhammad Zain Ul Abideen Sanaullah Jarwar Kashif Laghari Fareed Khan <p>The experiment was carried out at the Students Experimental Farm, Department of Agronomy, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, during autumn 2022. An experiment was laid out in RCBD to determine the influence of different phosphorus levels on sunflower growth and seed yield. The experiment consists of six treatments of P levels, repeated three times. The variety HO-1 was treated with different P levels: P<sub>1</sub> = 00 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, P<sub>2</sub> = 30 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, P<sub>3</sub> = 45 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, P<sub>4</sub> = 60 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, P<sub>5 </sub>= 75 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, and P<sub>6 </sub>= 100 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>. Experiment analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant difference (P&lt;0.05) for all growth and yield characteristics due to treatments. Maximum plant population (9.9 m<sup>-2</sup>), tallest plant (253.0 cm), maximum stem girth (11.7 cm), maximum head diameter (50.0 cm), maximum seeds head<sup>-1</sup> (2015.0), maximum seed weight head<sup>-1</sup> (71.2 g), seed index (35.0 g), and maximum seed yield (2760.3 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) were recorded in treatment 6 where phosphorus was applied 100 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> P, followed by P<sub>5</sub> = (phosphorus 75 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) with (9.6 m<sup>-2</sup>) plant population, with (247.7 cm) plant height, with (11.6 cm) stem girth, with (48.0 cm) head diameter, with (1971.3) seeds head<sup>-1</sup>, with (69.5 g) seed weight head<sup>-1</sup>, with (34.0 g) seed index, and seed yield (2725.7 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) however show that the lowest was P1<sub> = </sub>control (no fertilizer) minimum plant population (6.2m<sup>-2</sup>), smallest plant (190.0 cm), minimum stem girth (7.4cm), minimum head diameter (22.7 cm), minimum seeds head<sup>-1</sup> (1363), minimum seed weight head<sup>-1</sup> (33.2 g), seed index (22.0 g), and minimum seed yield (2070kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). It was also observed that sunflower performance was on par with T<sub>6</sub> and T<sub>5</sub>. From the present study, it is concluded that sunflowers performed equally well at T<sub>5</sub> and T<sub>6</sub>. Hence, for economic yield, T<sub>5</sub> is recommended.</p> 2024-04-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Danish Manzoor, Muhammad Ali Ansari, Asif Ali Kaleri, Rabia Laghari, Aatif Ali Rajput, Muhammad Ahsan Naseem, Sajjad Ali Khaki, Ayesha Shakoor, Muhammad Zain Ul Abideen, Sanaullah Jarwar, Kashif Laghari, Fareed Khan Comparative Study on Gross and Histopathology in Goat to Experimental Infection with Field Isolates of Mycoplasma 2024-03-09T10:30:36+00:00 Ghulam Mustafa Solangi Zaheer Ahmed Nizamani Mansoor Tariq Samo Faisal Rasool Barirah Rahman Talpur Muhammad Ali Chandio Zainab Lanjar Syed Ahmed Khan <p>Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a complex respiratory syndrome causing high morbidity and mortality in goats resulting in substantial economic losses in the goat farming. A total of 20 healthy goats were randomly divided into three group’s i-e, (A, B, and C). Each A and B group included 08 animals, while group C contained 04 animals. The animals in group A of about one year of age (with milk teeth), while group B was about two years of age (two permanent incisors). Group C had two animals from each age group. Groups A and B were infected by the intra-tracheal route at the dose of 3×10<sup>7</sup> CFUs of field isolated <em>Mycoplasma capricolum</em> subspecies <em>capripneumoniae</em> (Mccp) as described by Wesonga et al. (2004) with slight modification. At the same time, the goats in control group C was kept away from the infected animals. Necropsies were performed on animals dying during the course of infection. Among the surviving animals, two goats from group A and B was slaughtered every ten days on days 10, 20, 30, and 40 days post-infection (dpi). Gross lesions in organs like lungs, and trachea were recorded. Tissue samples from the lungs and trachea were collected on days 10, 20, 30 and 40 post-infection (dpi) for histopathological examination. The tissue samples were fixed in 10% formalin, processed, sectioned, and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. The tissue slides were examined for any histopathological lesions. Results indicated that gross pathological changes were observed in the trachea and lungs of experimental infected CCPP goats. In trachea, congestion, thin fibrinous mucous plug in lumens, haemorrhage. Purulent exudate, enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes were observed. In lungs, consolidations, enlarged bronchial and medistinal lymph nodes, frothy and fibrinous exudates, thoracic cavities filled with straw-colored fluid, viscous straw colored fluid was found in pleural cavities, multifocal lesions of necrosis and abscess were prominent on lungs surface. Hepatization colours of lungs varying from deep blue to reddish in colour were also observed. Histopathological examination of trachea sections revealed severe CCPP infection. Group A &amp; B plates showed the respiratory ciliated epithelial layer was erupted and erosion of lamina propria in later days of infection. Histopathological examination of lungs sections revealed that in group A, interalveolar capillaries were severely congested, the bronchioles were flooded with fibrinous or serofibrinous exudate, the bronchioles were narrowed by exudate, and the alveolar gaps were filled with fluid. In group B, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia with fibrous tissue mixed with inflammatory infiltration was observed.</p> 2024-04-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Ghulam Mustafa Solangi, Zaheer Ahmed Nizamani, Mansoor Tariq Samo, Faisal Rasool, Barirah Rahman Talpur, Muhammad Ali Chandio, Sajid Mehmood Sajid, Zainab Lanjar, Syed Ahmed Khan High Yielding, Stress Tolerance and Short Stature Mung Bean Cultivar (AZRI MUNG 2021): A New Success in Punjab, Pakistan 2024-03-25T18:36:44+00:00 Abdul Ghaffar Niaz Hussain Mudassar Khaliq Muhammad Nadeem Muneer Abbas Muhammad Aslam Zubeda Parveen Muhammad Irshad Sikandar Hayat Muhammad Tariq Javeed <p>High yield, disease tolerant and stress resistance are important cultivars traits, particularly for the crops sensitive to temperature and photoperiod. Mung bean (<em>Vigna radiata</em> L.) is the short day plant formerly cultivated in Asian countries and now consumed all around the world. However, there has been a relatively little research on its genetic improvement until the recent decades. AZRI-Mung 2021 is the mung bean cultivar which is developed via cross breeding between “Ramzan” and “NM-98” cultivars in Pakistan in the early part of this century. It is playing an important role in improving mung bean yield potential in Pakistan due to its higher yield, short stature, wider adoptability and high stress tolerance. Research article summarizes the development of AZRI-Mung 2021, describes its yield performance and adaptability in diverse eco-regions within the Punjab province and all over the country. It was concluded that being high yielding, disease tolerant and easily adjustable in cropping system AZRI-Mung 2021 might be used by farmers for higher production and by Breeders and Biotechnologists for further breeding programs and biotechnology. Due to its wider adaptability and higher yield characteristics it can be a game changer for food security challenges.</p> 2024-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Abdul Ghaffar, Niaz Hussain, Muhammad Tariq Mahmood, Muhammad Nadeem, Muneer Abbas, Muhammad Aslam, Zubeda Parveen, Muhammad Irshad, Sikandar Hayat, Mudassar Khaliq Insecticidal Activity of Different Botanical Plant Extract Powders against Rice Moth (Corcyra cephalonica) an Insect Pest of Store Grain 2024-01-25T07:25:19+00:00 Arif Ali Haji Khan Abdul Hafeez Mastoi Shafique Ahmed Memon Ghulam Ali Bugti Shakal khan Korai Shahjahan Rajput Muhammad Adeel Jahan Zaib Moheem Khan Gulkhanda Parwaiz <p>Rice moth (<em>Corcyra Cephalonia) </em>is one of the major insect pests of rice grains. It attacks the grains and reduces the rice quality and makes it unfit for the human consumption. For the management of this insect pest, six different botanical powders (Azadirachta indica seed powder, Azadirachta indica leaves powder, Nicotine powder, Eucalyptus powder, Withania coagulans and Datura stramonium ) were used and compared with control group. We observed that the maximum larval and pupal period of rice moth was observed on Azadirachta indica seed powder while minimum larval and pupal period was observed in the control group. Maximum larval mortality % and minimum pupal emergence % of rice moth was noticed on Azadirachta indica seed powder, while a statistically significantly decrease larval mortality % and minimum Pupal emergence % was found in control groups. Similarly, a lowest adult’s longevity of rice moth male and female was observed on Azadirachta indica seed powder, however a maximum adult’s longevity of rice moth male and female was observed on their control groups. A maximum Fecundity of rice moth was observed in control group, while a minimum Fecundity of rice moth was observed in Nicotine leaves powder group as compared with others treatment. A maximum oviposition rate of rice moth was observed on Withania coagulans and Datura stramonium leaves powder, while a minimum oviposition rate of rice moth was observed in Nicotine leave powder as compared with others treatment. A maximum repellence % of rice moth larvae were observed Azadirachta indica powder and minimum repellency % of rice moth larvae was found on Withania coagulans powder. A maximum antifeedents of rice grain moth larvae was observed in control group. Whereas, a minimum antifeedents % of rice grain moth larvae was found on Azadirachta indica seed powder as compared with control group. We concluded that Azadirachta indica seed, Azadirachta indica leaves and Nicotine leaves powder have great potential to reduce the pest population of rice moth in stored grains.</p> 2024-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Arif Ali, Haji Khan, Abdul Hafeez Mastoi, Shafique Ahmed Memon, Ghulam Ali Bugti, Shakal khan Korai, Shahjahan Rajput, Muhammad Adeel, Jahan Zaib, Moheem Khan, Gulkhanda Parwaiz Wheat Productivity and Profitability Response to Nitrogen and Organic Sources under Full and Limited Irrigation Condition 2023-12-08T11:50:58+00:00 Zeeshan Zarwar Iqra Nawaz Mehmood ul Hassan Muhammad Hamad Muhammad Aamir Amin Seemab Ashraf Zainab Nawaz Salman Abas Shaheer Ahmed Zia ur Rahman Atif Raja <p>This field experiment was conducted to examine the result of organic and nitrogen sources on productivity and profitability of wheat under irrigation condition at the Agronomy Research Farm, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan during (Rabi) season 2020-21. Organic sources at the rate of 10 t ha<sup>-1 </sup>and nitrogen sources 140 kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>were applied. The experiment was laid out in RCBD combined over irrigation using three replications (Each consist of 10 treatments). The treatments were comprised of one control plot (No OS and NS was applied), three OS (poultry manure, sheep manure and cattle manure each at rate of 10 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and three nitrogen sources (urea, ammonium sulfate and calcium ammonium nitrate at rate of 140 kg<sup>-1</sup>). OS were applied accordingly to the plots one month before sowing. Fully irrigated field have total five irrigation was applied (after 7 days of sowing, tillering, heading, anthesis and grain filling stage) and the limited irrigated field only two irrigations were applied (one at tillering and the other is grain filling stage). Results showed that integrated use of PM (10 t ha<sup>-1</sup>) and NS (140 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) significantly (P≤0.05) improved plant height, spikes m<sup>-2</sup>, biological and grain yield. Results of the fully irrigated fields were higher than the limited irrigated fields. However, treated plots performance was better than the control</p> 2024-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Zeeshan Zarwar, Iqra Nawaz, Mehmood ul Hassan, Muhammad Hamad, Muhammad Aamir Amin, Seemab Ashraf, Zainab Nawaz, Salman Abas, Shaheer Ahmed, Zia ur Rahman, Atif Raja Evaluation of Microbial Contamination in Commercial Broiler Feeds at Karachi and Surroundings 2024-04-29T09:19:41+00:00 Mehkar Hussain Iqra Ayaz Dildar Hussain Kalhoro Zulfiqar Ali Mirani Tanveer Abbas <p>The poultry industry in Pakistan is a vital sector, accounting for 28% of the country's total meat production. Its growth rate is between 10% and 15% annually. However, if faulty components are used without proper sanitary precautions and feed is not thoroughly examined that can lead to the spread of diseases that harm both humans and animals. This research aims to identify and isolate disease-producing organisms in poultry feed to aid in diagnosis of microbial illnesses before treatment and control measures are implemented. During present study a total of hundred (n=100) Commercial broiler feed samples in triplets were analyzed according to Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) (Drug Administration. Division of Microbiology. (1978). Bacteriological analytical manual (Vol. 1) by cultural techniques, microscopy, to detect the presence of Salmonella spp., <em>E. Coli</em>, coliforms, Y&amp;M, APC, and fecal coliforms. Then each isolate was identified by biochemical testing that included Indole, Methyl Red, Voges-Proskauer test, Citrate Utilization, Motility, Gas and Lactose tests. Out of 100 samples, 97 had an APC count, 68 showed growth for Y&amp;M, 27 had coliforms and fecal coliforms, 13 had <em>E. coli</em>, 12 had positive growth for Salmonella spp., statistics valid in the form of overall percentage (%) detected microbial contaminants in feed samples, showed that out of all 100 samples, 40% had an aerobic plate count, 28% had mold and yeast, 11% had coliforms, and 11% had fecal coliforms. In entire samples, <em>E. coli and Salmonella</em> was detected only 5% each. It is concluded from present study that pathogens like <em>Salmonella, E. coli</em>, yeast, and molds were isolated and identified from commercial broiler feeds may be a source of salmonellosis, colibacillosis, mycotoxicosis hence causing financial losses because of low FCR, treatment cost and drop in production and significant burden on public health because of use of antibiotics for infected birds treatment may be a source of Anti-Microbial Resistance. Continuous Scientific research, aseptic handling, buying top quality ingredients, hygienic production of feeds, proper silos and storage facilities with regular check and balance for ingredients through R&amp;D labs should be ensured for minimizing contaminants</p> 2024-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Mehkar Hussain, Iqra Ayaz, Dildar Hussain Kalhoro, Zulfiqar Ali Mirani, Tanveer Abbas Foliar Spray Application of Salicylic Acid (C7H6O3) On Turnip Plants Grown with Saline Irrigation 2024-05-16T11:24:26+00:00 Ghulam Qadir Abid Ali Maryum Sarfraz Khalil Ahmed Muhammad Shakar Muhammad Qaisar Nawaz Muhammad Faisal Nawaz Ghulam Shabbir Muhammad Rizwan Nadeem Iqbal Muhammad Arif Adnan Umair Alamgir Alvi Muhammad Abubakar Siddique Muhammad Nadeem Muhammad Zaighum Mushtaq Muhammad Ashfaq Anjum <p>Water quality is a concern to everyone. How to manage water in a specific situation can both be a practical and financial challenge. The impact of irrigation water on soil and plants depends on the water, soil, crop, and environmental conditions. Due to continuous increase in world population and competition among industrial and agricultural sectors for fresh water, it is opined that after every 35 years, water requirement will be doubled. In this scenario, use of underground saline water for crop production with acceptable economic yield is a viable strategy. Salicylic acid (SA) is key hormone that has been shown to protect various plant species against abiotic stress. Therefore, a pot study was conducted during 2019 to investigate the effect of exogenous application of salicylic acid (dissolved in Ethanol and sprayed using tap water) and 4 synthetic saline waters on yield of turnip. The treatments were: Saline water irrigation levels A: Tap water 0.80, 3, 5 and 7 dS m<sup>-1</sup> and B: SA Spray (0, 150, 300 and 450 mg/L). Foliar sprays were applied 08 times during crop growing season. The experiment was conducted in factorial design having three repeats. Crop was harvested and yield data was recorded. Results revealed that maximum turnip yield (485.92 g/pot) was recorded with tap water and increasing levels of saline water irrigation decreased the turnip yield and minimum turnip yield (253.50 g/pot) was observed at 7 dS m<sup>-1</sup>. Among SA levels, SA at 300 mg/L produced maximum turnip yield (402 g/pot). Interaction showed that maximum yield (381.33 g/pot) was produced with SA sprayed at 300 mg/L with saline irrigation of 3 dS m<sup>-1</sup>. Therefore, it was concluded that SA at 300 mg/L was an effective strategy to alleviate the negative effects of saline water irrigation stress of up to3 dS m<sup>-1</sup> for turnip production.</p> 2024-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Ghulam Qadir, Abid Ali, Maryum Sarfraz, Khalil Ahmed, Muhammad Shakar, Muhammad Qaisar Nawaz, Muhammad Faisal Nawaz, Ghulam Shabbir, Muhammad Rizwan, Nadeem Iqbal, Muhammad Arif, Adnan Umair, Alamgir Alvi, Muhammad Abubakar Siddique, Muhammad Nadeem, Muhammad Zaighum Mushtaq, Muhammad Ashfaq Anjum Response on Eggplant Growth and Yield under Different Organic Potting Media 2024-05-16T05:51:16+00:00 Rashid Ali Dayo Wahid Dino Sipio Jan Muhammad Keerio Jawed Aslam Khyber Aamer Ali Goraya Abdul Rafi Bhutto Reema Vistro Wazir Ahmed Shar Farman Ali Kaleri Imtiaz Ali Kaleri Hussain Bux Kaleri Kamran <p>The pot experiment aimed to assess the response on eggplant growth and yield under different organic potting media. A trial was conducted in a complete randomized design (CRD) at the Department of Horticulture, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, and featured triple replications. The treatments included; T1: (control) a mixture of canal debris and soil in a ratio of 2:0.5 T2: a mixture of poultry feces with canal debris and soil in a ratio of 1:2:0.5 T3: a blend of Sheep dung with canal debris and soil in a ratio of 1:2:0.5 T4: incorporation of compost (Terminix Pro) with canal debris and soil in a ratio of 1:2:0.5. It was examined that the eggplant cultivars was significantly (P&lt;0.05) affected by different organic manures. The eggplant receiving sheep dung with canal debris and soil (1:2:0.5) produced 49.64 cm plant stature, 26.60 leaf count plant<sup>-1</sup>, 27.54 blossom count plant<sup>-1</sup>, 5.68 cm leaf dimension, 1.66 cm internodes interval plant<sup>-1</sup>, 47.38 day to debut blossom initiation, 0.83 g blossom weight, 2.22 cm floral span, 59.66 g fruit weight and 49.51 cm fruit diameter. This finding suggests that the eggplant growth increased simultaneously with crop fertilized with sheep dung, canal debris, and soil (1:2:0.5). In the context, “Black Beauty” variety exhibited a significant maximum growth yield compared to the variety “Round black”.</p> 2024-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Rashid Ali Dayo, Wahid Dino Sipio, Jan Muhammad Keerio, Jawed Aslam Khyber, Aamer Ali Goraya, Abdul Rafi Bhutto, Reema Vistro, Wazir Ahmed Shar, Farman Ali Kaleri, Imtiaz Ali Kaleri, Hussain Bux Kaleri, Kamran Vermicomposting of Municipal Solid Waste Mixed with Poultry Litter and Farmyard Manure to Improve Compost Quality 2024-05-17T08:50:03+00:00 Tanveer Iqbal Ghulam Mujtaba Aurang Zaib Jamail Irslan Ali Fahad Muhibullah Majid Ullah Shafiq-ur- Rehman Muhammad Saeed <p>Persistent increases in population and urbanization have led to an increase in municipal solid waste (MSW) production. Solid wastes pose a great threat to the environment. The vermicomposting technique is use full for the degradation and reduction of solid waste, recovery of nutrients and returning them to the environment to feed the globe by increasing agricultural productivity and generating the least amount of damage possible to the environment. The aim of this study is utilizing municipal solid waste in combination with poultry litter and farmyard manure to enhance the quality of final product vermicompost used. Also to increase the impact of vermicompost on crops. The treatments involved in the study was include municipal solid waste (control treatment), municipal solid waste and poultry litter (1:1), municipal solid waste and farmyard manure (1:1). In second stage vermicompost were used for growing maize in pots. Soil and plant analysis were carried out before and after experiment. Plant growth parameters i.e, plant height, fresh biomass weight was also being recorded. The rationale of this study is to utilize vermicomposting for the degradation of municipal solid waste. Moreover, to check the efficacy of vermicompost for agricultural development and study its potential for future perspective by using various parameters of soil and analysis of plant growth</p> 2024-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Tanveer Iqbal, Ghulam Mujtaba, Aurang Zaib Jamail, Irslan Ali, Fahad Muhibullah, Majid Ullah, Shafiq-ur- Rehman, Muhammad Saeed