Jammu Kashmir Journal of Agriculture http://jkjagri.com/index.php/journal <p><a href="https://jkjagri.com/"><strong>Jammu Kashmir Journal of Agriculture</strong></a></p> <p><strong><em><u>AIMS AND SCOPE </u></em></strong></p> <p><em> </em><em>Jammu Kashmir Journal of Agriculture</em> is a scientific, scholarly and international open-access journal publishing high-quality peer-reviewed research articles, review papers and short communications reflecting the depth of interdisciplinarity of agriculture. The aim of <em>Jammu Kashmir Journal of Agriculture</em> is to publish recent and advanced research on the production technology of crops, rearing of dairy animals, postharvest handling and management practices of produce, conservation and restoration of natural resource base (land, soil and water), rural development and recent advancements on agricultural practices under changing climate. Accordingly, the scope of <em>Jammu Kashmir Journal of Agriculture</em> for the consideration of contributions is detail out below.</p> <p><strong>Crop production</strong><strong> (cereals, legumes, fruits, vegetables and flowers)</strong></p> <ul> <li>Crop protection (diseases and insect management, weeds and invasive species management)</li> <li>Crop breeding and molecular genetics</li> <li>Crop nutrition management</li> <li>Irrigation and efficient water utilization</li> <li>Crop physiology</li> <li>Sustainable agriculture</li> <li>Organic agriculture</li> <li>Precision agriculture</li> <li>Conservation agriculture</li> </ul> <p><strong>Animal production: livestock and poultry</strong></p> <ul> <li>Animal nutrition</li> <li>Animal breeding</li> <li>Veterinary Parasitology</li> <li>Veterinary Microbiology</li> <li>Veterinary Pathology</li> <li>Veterinary Medicine and Surgery</li> </ul> <p><strong>Natural resource base</strong></p> <ul> <li>Soil microbiology</li> <li>Soil chemistry</li> <li>Soil and water quality</li> <li>Irrigation and water use efficiency</li> <li>Land uses</li> </ul> <p><strong>Rural management and agricultural development</strong></p> <ul> <li>Trade and marketing</li> <li>Rural communities development</li> </ul> <p><strong>Agricultural Engineering</strong></p> <ul> <li>Farm machinery uses and advancements</li> <li>Geographical Information Systems</li> <li>Remote sensing devices and protocols</li> </ul> <p><strong>Agricultural product safety</strong></p> <ul> <li>Post-harvest handling and management</li> <li>Nutritional safety of produce</li> <li>Novel food products developments</li> </ul> University of Poonch Rawalakot en-US Jammu Kashmir Journal of Agriculture 2958-3748 Species Composition of Mosquitoes in Margalla Hills National Park, Islamabad, Pakistan http://jkjagri.com/index.php/journal/article/view/66 <p>Many maladies, such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and filariasis, are transmitted by mosquitoes. Mosquitoes are dipteran insects of family Culicidae within Phylum Arthropoda. This insect has cosmopolitan distribution. Herein we have investigated the species composition of mosquito fauna in Margalla Hills National Park during 2022-23. Adults, pupae, and larvae of mosquitoes were collected from multiple sampling sites in the study area. Dip net was used for the collection of immature stages. The adult were collected using sweep nets and aspirators. The obtained specimens were mounted on entomological pins after the collection and killing of adult mosquitoes. Representative specimens of each mosquito species were attached to a miniature platform via the thorax. Utilizing standard taxonomic keys, adult mosquitoes were identified. During the course of present study, a total of eleven species; <em>Anopheles stephensi </em>Liston,<em> Anopheles maculatus</em> Theobald<em> Armigeres subalbatus</em> Coquillett,<em> Armigeres kuchingensis</em> Edwards,<em> Aedes aegypti</em> Linnaeus,<em> Aedes albopictus</em> Skuses,<em> Aedes vittatus</em> Bigot, <em>Culex quinquefasciatus</em> Say,<em> Culex theileri</em> Theobald,<em> Lutzia raptor</em> Edwards and <em>Mansonia uniformis</em> Theobald, were identified. The scientific names, synonyms, habitat description, and body measurements of collected specimens were provided alongside their collection dates. Current study would provide basic information for Government agencies and policy makers in the management of different mosquito vectors in Pakistan.</p> Rabia Arooj Amjad Rashid Kayani Bushra Allah Rakha Imran Bodlah Muhammad Rizwan Copyright (c) 2023 Rabia Arooj, Amjad Rashid Kayani, Bushra Allah Rakha, Imran Bodlah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-08-30 2023-08-30 3 2 45 57 Evaluating the Purification Potential of Moringa oleifera Seed in Drinking Water http://jkjagri.com/index.php/journal/article/view/62 <p>Water pollution is one of the major threats to public health throughout the world. In Pakistan, the drinking water quality is poorly managed and monitored. Both surface and groundwater sources are contaminated with municipal wastes, industrial effluents and agrochemicals wastes. Therefore, water purification is necessary to reduce the contamination effect. For water purification, available inorganic chemicals (alum) are costly, unfriendly to environment and result in serious health problems like cancer. As an alternative natural method is required, that may safe, effective in water treatment and eco-friendly. In this study the seeds of <em>Moringa oleifera</em> seed powder with different concentration (50, 75, 100, 125, 150 mg) with time duration (4, 8 and 12 hrs) was applied for purification of water collected from Rawalpindi and Islamabad. <em>Moringa oleifera</em> seed powder showed the best purification results upto 80%. Water-soluble proteins in seed that performed as a coagulant reduced the contamination of hardness 40%, turbidity 60%, chlorides to 61%, contained anti-microbial properties and removed the <em>Total coliforms</em> to 80%. As a result, it provided inclusive results on the proficient use of <em>Moringa Oleifera </em>seed in purification of drinking water and that purification technique is economical.</p> Hassan Aziz Asif Ahmad Andleeb Zahra Hafiz Umair Ali Tahira Batool Qaisrani Waqas Razzaq Munaza Batool Abdus Samee Muhammad Waqar Muhammad Bilal Copyright (c) 2023 Hassan Aziz, Asif Ahmad, Andleeb Zahra, Hafiz Umair Ali, Tahira Batool Qaisrani, Waqas Razzaq, Munaza Batool, Abdus Samee, Muhammad Waqar, Muhammad Bilal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-10-17 2023-10-17 3 2 59 69 Comparative Analysis of Physio-chemical and Yield Characteristics of Different Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) F1 Hybrids under Rainfed Conditions http://jkjagri.com/index.php/journal/article/view/70 <p>Rainfed agriculture plays a critical role in providing livelihoods and food security for millions of people around the world. However, the vulnerability of rainfed areas to climate change poses significant challenges to vegetable production in these regions. Watermelon (<em>Citrullus lanatus</em> L.) is an economically significant crop in rainfed areas which is known for its high nutritional value and sweet taste. This study aims to compare the physio-chemical and yield attributes of various F<sub>1</sub> hybrids of watermelon to identify the potential of superior cultivars under rainfed conditions. Seven different F<sub>1</sub> hybrids were evaluated under field conditions in a randomized complete block design. Physio-chemical attributes including days to germination, fruit weight, fruit length, fruit diameter, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), and pH were measured. Statistical analysis of the data revealed significant variations among the F<sub>1</sub> hybrids for all measured attributes. The minimum days of germination and number of days to female flower appearance were observed in Anarkali F<sub>1</sub> and maximum number of primary branches and greater number of female and male flowers per plant was found in Anarkali F<sub>1</sub>. Minimum numbers of female and male flowers were recorded in Big Ball F<sub>1</sub>. Anarkali F<sub>1</sub> was found to be good variety for fruit weight, fruit length and fruit diameter. The highest TSS (Brix°) was found in Anarkali F<sub>1</sub> followed by Century F<sub>1</sub> and Reo Grandy F<sub>1</sub> and lowest TSS (Brix°) was recorded in Black Chairman and Big Sweet F<sub>1</sub>. In conclusion Anarkali F<sub>1</sub> exhibited the best physio-chemical and yield properties. These findings can assist farmers, breeders and researchers in selecting suitable watermelon hybrids to increase yield and quality.</p> Imran Ali Tanveer Hussain Copyright (c) 2023 Imran Ali, Tanveer Hussain https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-08-30 2023-08-30 3 2 71 77 Influence of Phenolic Antioxidants on Changes in Quality Characteristics of Palm Olein during Intermittent Frying of Potato Chips http://jkjagri.com/index.php/journal/article/view/64 <p>Consumption of deep fried foods is continuously increasing because they are easily and quickly prepared, relatively cheap, with typical appealing flavor, golden brown color and have a crispy texture. In common practice, mostly the frying process is conducted again and again in the same oil. So this repeatedly heating of the same oil at high temperatures causes several deteriorative reactions such as oxidation, polymerization and thermal degradation. Among them oxidation is one of the major problems that affect the edible oils. The use of antioxidants is one of the easiest and cheapest method which my address this issue, especially in developing countries. In this study effectiveness of four different types of phenolic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) and vitamin E (tocopherol) against the changes in quality characteristics of palm olein during deep-fat frying (at 180 °C) of potato chips (for seven consecutive days) was compared at their five different concentrations i.e. 40 ppm, 80 ppm, 120 ppm, 160 ppm and 200 ppm and also with control. Potato chips were fried in palm olein containing different levels of these phenolic antioxidants. Fried oil samples were analyzed for three parameters such as peroxide value (POV), free fatty acid (FFA) contents and iodine value (IV). In general, BHA showed lowest rate of increase in POV and FFA at each concentration and day compared to control and three other antioxidants. The mean value of POV for BHA, TBHQ, BHT, Vit E and Control was 8.7144, 8.9924, 9.3094, 9.5964 and 9.8671 meq/kg respectively. Similarly, mean values of FFA for BHA, BHT, TBHQ, Vit E and Control were 0.1454, 0.1861, 0.1992, 0.2700 and 0.2998 % respectively. While in case of IV, BHA showed lowest rate of decrease in IV at each concentration and day compared to control and other three antioxidants. The mean value of IV for BHA, TBHQ, BHT, Vit E and Control was 50.154, 49.664, 49.615, 49.615 and 48.321 g/100g respectively. The sequence of effectiveness of antioxidants against oxidative deteriorations in palm olein during intermittent frying of potato chips at each concentration (40 ppm, 80 ppm, 120 ppm,160 ppm and 200 ppm) and day (day 1st to 7th) was BHA &gt;TBHQ &gt;BHT &gt;Vit E &gt;Control. Overall, BHA showed highest protection against oxidation at each concentration and day as compared to rest of the antioxidants, after BHA, TBHQ was most effective against the rate of oxidation at each level of concentration and day then rest two antioxidants, after TBHQ, BHT was on third position when compared to other antioxidants while Vit E was least effective antioxidant against the oxidation of oil. From the results of this research it can be concluded that BHA with the concentration level ranging from 160 ppm to 200 ppm could be used to improve the oxidative stability of palm olein during deep fat frying, due to its low cost, easy availability and high performance.</p> Muhammad Waqar Asif Ahmad Waqar Qaisar Rabia Basri Hassan Aziz Copyright (c) 2023 Muhammad Waqar, Asif Ahmad, Waqar Qaisar, Rabia Basri, Hassan Aziz https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-08-30 2023-08-30 3 2 79 88 Toxicity of Selected Insecticide against Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (L.) under Controlled Condition http://jkjagri.com/index.php/journal/article/view/74 <p><em>Plutella xylostella </em>L. commonly known as diamondback moth, is the major pest of crops belonging to family <em>Brassicaceae</em> all over the world. The diamondback moth reduces the economical production of the crucifers, while several insecticide and IPM techniques have been applied for its better management, but it has developed resistance against insecticides. Five insecticides, including Chlorantraniliprole, Lufenuron, Flubendamide, Trichlorphon, and Pyriproxifen, were tested against <em>P. xylostella </em>(DBM) at the 2<sup>nd</sup> and 3<sup>rd</sup> larval stages to evaluate mortality by using the leaf dip bioassay method after a time interval of 24, 48, and 72 hours. All the insecticides were found toxic to the studied insects; however, mortality was found to be time-dependent. Flubendiamide proved to be more effective with 96.6 percent corrected mortality after 48hrs and LC<sub>50</sub> 7.035 µl/ml against <em>P. xylostella </em>immatures, while chlorantraniliprole was found to be the second most effective insecticide. The present study reveals the high potential of insecticides, so these insecticides could be evaluated further under field conditions.</p> Atta Ur Rehman Imran Bodlah Muhammad Farooq Nasir Muhammad Shehzad Syed Aoun Taqi Bukhari Muhammad Yasir Naseer Asghar Ammar Khalid Muhammad Aqib Nissar Muhammad Rizwan Copyright (c) 2023 Atta Ur Rehman, Imran Bodlah, Muhammad Farooq Nasir, Muhammad Shehzad, Syed Aoun Taqi Bukhari, Muhammad Yasir Naseer Asghar, Ammar Khalid, Muhammad Aqib Nissar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-08-30 2023-08-30 3 2 89 94 Triggering Systemic Resistance in Tomato Plants using Salicylic Acid and Gibberellic Acid against Tomato Mosaic Disease under Greenhouse http://jkjagri.com/index.php/journal/article/view/67 <p>Tomato mosaic disease (ToMD), caused by <em>Tomato mosaic virus</em> (ToMV, Genus<em>: Tobamovirus</em>, Family: <em>Virgaviridae</em>) is economically important disease of the tomato. Under favorable environmental conditions sever yield losses have been reported due to ToMD. Therefore, present study was conducted for its management through enhancing systemic resistance using Salicylic acid (SA) and Gibberellic acid (GA) in tomato crop. The phytotoxic effect of either chemical was evaluated prior to treatments, 500, 750, and 1000 µg/ml of SA and 250, 500, and 750 µg/ml of GA were used for further experiments. Tomato plants were treated with various concentrations of SA and GA. Four days following treatment, sap obtained from symptomatic tomato plants was inoculated on healthy plants. Incidence and severity of disease were observed weekly. In the first week of observation, SA at 750 and 1000 µg/ml kept plants disease-free. At second week of observation, SA at 1000 µg/ml remained effective. At third week of observation, 500 and 750 µg/ml SA led to 100% incidence, while 1000 µg/ml had significantly lower 33.333% incidence. GA at 500 and 750 µg/ml suppressed symptoms in the first week of observation. In second and third week of observation, 500 µg/ml GA had 100% incidence, but plants treated with 750 µg/ml had 33.333% incidence.250 µg/ml GA showed no suppression at all weeks of observations same as inoculated control. Inoculated control plants had maximum severity score of 2.6667. Lower SA (500 µg/ml) concentration had severity scores 1.0, 1.3333, 2.3333 during the observation on 1<sup>st</sup>, 2<sup>nd</sup> and 3<sup>rd</sup> week after foliar application, respectively. Middle SA (750 µg/ml) concentration had severity scores 0.0, 0.3333, 1.6667 during the observation on 1<sup>st</sup>, 2<sup>nd</sup> and 3<sup>rd</sup> week after foliar application, respectively. Similarly, during 1<sup>st </sup>and 2<sup>nd</sup> week after foliar application of SA @ 1000 µg/ml the severity score 0.0 and during 3<sup>rd</sup> week severity score was 0.333. Likewise severity score of 1.0, 1.3333, and 2.6667 was recorded in GA at lower concentration (250 µg/ml). During 1<sup>st</sup>, 2<sup>nd</sup> and 3<sup>rd</sup> week after foliar application of GA @ 500 µg/ml the severity score was 0.0, 1.0 and 2.0, respectively. Severity score of 0.0 during 1<sup>st</sup> and 2<sup>nd</sup> week of observation and 0.3333 score at 3<sup>rd</sup> week of observation was recorded with the application of 750 µg/ml of GA in tomato plants. It is concluded based on results, that SA @ 1000 µg/ml and GA @ 750µg/ml were effective to reduce the incidence of ToMD. Lower doses of either SA or GA were not effective to reduce the severity of ToMD, whereas in middle dose the severity was slight reduced. Higher dose of both chemical suppressed the development of the disease in treated tomato plants. Therefore, it is suggested that with the application of SA and GA @ 750 and 1000 µg/ml, respectively can enhance resistance level of tomato plants against ToMD.</p> Asad Ali Khan Khaskheli Jamal-U-Ddin Hajano Manzoor Ali Abro Muhammad Ibrahim Khaskheli Rehana Naz Syed Ghulam Hussain Jatoi Fazal Rabi Muhammad Sharif Khaskheli Sunder Sham Bheermani Suman Tarique Qazi Copyright (c) 2023 Asad Ali Khan Khaskheli, Jamal-U-Ddin Hajano, Manzoor Ali Abro, Muhammad Ibrahim Khaskheli, bRehana Naz Syed, Ghulam Hussain Jatoi, Muhammad Sharif Khaskheli, Sunder Sham Bheermani, Suman Tarique Qazi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-08-30 2023-08-30 3 2 95 103